The relationship of Arab expats with the media of their countries of emigration
Sweden as a model
Aseel Mahdi Rashid al-Aameri
The research sought to study the theme of (Media separation – the relationship of Arab expats with the media of their countries of immigration, Sweden as a model). This phenomenon (problem) has not been subjected to in- depth study in order to know its reasons and its impact on the Arab immigrants in relation to their integration, work opportunities or adaptation to live in the Swedish society, which made the researcher to opt for this problem as a the theme of her study.
Separation is a kind of word that is rarely used in Arabic media studies, relevant, sometimes, to the meaning of ““refraining from watching TV or listening to radio or reading newspapers”. Sometimes it means “not tuning to or using any form of media like radios or newspapers to be updated about what is going on in the world”.
And if separation in this sense means a kind of interruption in the link between the mass media messages on the one hand and the public on the other hand, - which is a serious link in the communication process – the study has defined it as a case of voluntary or involuntary abstaining from following up the satellite channels and other means of media for a number of reasons hidden or declared by the person who assumes this attitude against such means of communication, or because this person is unable to follow up due to the barrier of the language used by these media channels; this failure maybe due to programmed plans drawn by the owners of these means who intentionally ignore the problems of the immigrant or going too far in degrading his image or underestimating his value.
The research contained five chapters. Chapter one was dedicated to the methodological aspects of research in terms of identifying the problem, the motivations, the objectives, the limits of research, the study method and designating the research society, in addition to the means of implementation adopted therein.
The research has also identified some concepts and terminology relative to the subject matter of the research, including researcher`s knowledge on relevant previous studies and research related to the subject of her study and the extent of her utilization of the results.
The study has designated the aims of the study by examining the following main objective:
Is there a case of Media separation between the Swedish recipient of Arab origin and the Swedish media in the country he Lives in (Sweden)?
Under this goal a group of sub-goals are listed:
1. To identify to what extent the Swedish recipient of Arab origin is following up the Swedish print press.
2 - To identify to what extent the Swedish recipient of Arab origin is following up the themes of the Swedish print press.
3. To identify the causes and motives why the Swedish recipient of Arab origin is not following up what is written in the Swedish print press
4. To identify to what extent the Swedish recipient of Arab origin is not following up Swedish visual press (satellite channels)
5 - To identify to what extent the Swedish recipient of Arab origin is not following up the Swedish television programmes in the Swedish visual press (satellite channels)
6. To identify the causes and motives for which the Swedish media consumer of Arabic origin is not watching Swedish visual media (satellite channels).
7-To identify to what extent the Arabic immigrant would listen to the Swedish audio media (radio stations).
8. To identify the places from which the Swedish media recipient of Arabic origin would follow up the Swedish audio media (radio stations).
9-To identify the causes and motives causing the Swedish media receiver of Arabic origin not to follow up the Swedish audio media (Radio Stations).
10-To identify to what extent the Swedish media receiver of Arabic origin is using TV Text in the Swedish visual (television stations).
11 - To identify to what extent the Swedish media receiver of Arabic origin is using the types of TV Text subjects in the Swedish visual (television stations).
This study used the survey approach, which involves surveying the public through the questionnaire. A number of samples have been determined to be examined through the questionnaire depending on the number of members of the Arab community in the city of Malmo, Sweden, concentrating on the Iraqi community in particular.
Rosengard district was chosen as a place for research, where there lives a big number of Arabic and Iraqi community members.
Checking the calculating of the research results were reviewed by the researcher and her supervising professor. The outcomes of the study have been written down, discussed and were subjected to the truth test. The study outcomes were analyzed in order to deduce observations and to draw a conclusive Summary that contained the proposals and recommendations of the researcher.
Chapter two - the theoretical framework has outlined three parts. The first, dealt with immigrants and theories of contemporary communication – a reading in the relationship and interaction – which addressed the most important theories of communications and their relationship with the immigrants.
The second part focused on the study of media separation, its definitions its concept and its different types as well as the most important psychological motives which lead to disengagement from media.
The third part dealt with the media needs of immigrants.
In chapter three the research procedures have been identified. The research society, research sample, research tool, research duration, the sincerity and durability procedures, the identification of the variables in the study, and field research procedures during the period of time, from 8/8/2010 until the end of November of the same year.
The duration of time of the study was determined by the time of which she had spent a researcher had spent in field data collection, the period from 8\8\2010 to 8/11/2010.
For the purpose of verifying the authenticity of the analysis tool, the researcher showed the questionnaire form of the study to a group of professors and experts in the field of her study to determine its suitability to the objectives of the study. The experts have expressed a number of observations and suggested a number of amendments which were taken into consideration by the researcher. Additionally, there were some more observations that have arisen after the researcher had her first encounter with the public as some practical observations were received and have been integrated into the questionnaire to give it its final in final form adopted in the research.
the study sample was composed of 401 items, 240 males at a rate of 60%, and 161 female at a rate of 40%, and age groups from the age of 16 to 22, whose number was 171 at a rate of 42.75%, and from the age of 22 to 45 the number was 117 by at a rate of 29%, and from the age of 45 and above the number was 113 at a rate of28.2%.
The scientific level of the sample items was as follows: for university and postgraduate studies the number was 204 at a rate 51%, secondary school level the number was 144 at a rate of 35.75, primary school level the number was 47 at a rate of 11.7 %.
Concerning the period of living in Sweden the items were as follows: from 1-5 years the number was 81 at a rate of 20%, and from 5-10-year-old the number of items was 205 at a rate of 51.2 %, from 10 years or more the number was 115 at a rate of 28.7 %. The number of the employed among the items of the sample was 86 at a rate of 21.5% and the number of the unemployed was 101 at a rate of 25.2%, the number of students 214 at a rate of 53.4%.
Chapter four contained a statement and analysis of the research results, where the results of the research results and the comments and analyses of the researcher have been put forth. The most important results were:
- Results showed that the percentage of newspapers reading among the items of the sample was low, as the percentage of readers was 22.4 %, and that of non-readers amounted to 77.5%, which is a very high percentage.
- The paragraph (because I cannot speak Swedish) topped the reasons for which the items of the sample are not reading the Swedish newspapers. The percentage of non-readers amounted to 66% of the number of sample members.
- Results showed that the newspapers that were more preferred by the sample members were the newspapers of , , , and ,. Metro and Citigroup are two of the most circulated and distributed free newspapers in Malmo.
The percentage of males who preferred to read amounted to 11% and the percentage of females was that of 6.2% in the follow –up paragraph at one-time while the percentage rose to 14% for males and 11.8% for females in the follow-up field for more than once.
- and newspapers scored the second place after the first two above-mentioned newspapers as they enjoyed almost similar readability rates in which came first in relation to male follow –up percentage for once that amounted to 25.6% for males and 4.5% for females.
- The newspapers that scored no follow-up percentage were the newspapers that are often issued in Stockholm or outside other areas of southern Sweden, which are: , , , and .
B- The results of the question concerning watching Swedish satellite channels were as follows:
- The results showed that the percentage of watching satellite was low among the members of the sample, which amounted to 32.4 %.
- The percentage of non-watching amounted to 67.6%, which is a very high rate.
- The paragraph of (because I cannot speak Swedish) topped the reasons for which the members of the sample are not reading the Swedish newspapers and amounted to 51 % of the number of members of the sample.
. Results showed that the highest percentage of satellite channels watching was obtained by the Swedish channel 4 among male members of the sample which amounted to 20. 8% and among female members of the sample amounted to 21. 7%, followed by the Swedish channel one which was 20% for males and 13. 6% for females, which is the same ratio of sample male members obtained by the fourth Swedish sports channel , though the percentage of watching this channel by females was not the same as males as it amounted to 6. 2%.
-Results showed that a number of channels did not enjoy any percentage of viewing such as the films Channel 4 , the Facts Channel 4 , Channel, the Knowledge Channel , Discovery Channel , , , , , , , and as these channels broadcast only according to the paid-up prescription system which was not available to the members of the sample as no member of the sample has entered any data showing their prescription in any of these prepaid satellite channels.
- The number of those who use text in Swedish satellite channels was 68 males and 42 females, distributed on the answer yes, sometimes.
- Results showed that the Swedish Channel one enjoyed the highest male watching percentage of 11. 2%, followed by the Swedish Channel 4, which obtained 10. 8% of watching, then Channel 6 that obtained 10.4%, scoring the first rate among females with a percentage of 9. 3%. The same percentage was obtained the Swedish Channel 5 for female watching, followed by Channel 6 with 6. 2%. The rest of channels scored different viewing percentages among the members of the sample.
C – Regarding the answers to the question of listening to different types of Swedish radio stations the results were as follows:
- The rate of the listening was low among the items of the sample, which amounted to 17.4 %.
- Results showed that the percentage of non-listening reached 84.4%, which is a very high percentage.
- The paragraph (because I do not fully understand Swedish) topped the reasons why the members of the sample were unable to read Swedish newspapers which amounted to 54.8% of members of the sample.
- The Paragraph titled other stations received the highest percentage of male and female listening, where the percentage of male listening was 11. 2% and 11% for females.
- concerning types of stations listened to by members of the sample results revealed that the sample is listening the Arabic Service in the Swedish radio, a programme that carries the title of the magazine, broadcasted live every evening from Monday to Friday at (14:30).
- Chapter five included the results of research, the recommendations and proposals reached at by the study, including:
First: there is a high-intensity media separation among the Arab immigrants from various media forms which have been measured and showed that the rates of media disengagement did not change very much, though the rates showed some improvement in relation to satellite channels only.
Secondly : the language barrier and understanding and dealing with the language was one of the most difficult obstacles that have confronted the members of the research sample and caused them to be separated from following the media.
The researcher suggested a number of studies, which she hopes to be carried out in the future as a continuous update on the theme of the current study, including:
- The image of Arab immigrants in Swedish media.
- Immigration and immigrants issues in the Swedish press.
- The impact of the Swedish satellite media in the social environment of Arab immigrant community